An MRA is a multi-functional, yet single antenna element, which is capable of providing dynamically changeable antenna properties in frequency, radiation pattern, and polarization by dynamically morphing its architecture. The combination of multiple individual MRAs can be arranged in an array fashion forming a multi-functional reconfigurable antenna array (MRAA). The MRAs with variable properties being the individual radiators of the MRAA constitutes the main difference with a standard linear antenna array, which consists of radiators of which properties are fixed by the initial design and cannot be changed. A standard array has a fixed element factor and its radiation pattern is solely controlled by the array factor, which is determined by the geometrical position of the radiators forming the array and their excitations. On the other hand, MRAA has a variable element factor, which presents a significant additional degree of freedom in providing highly agile array properties in frequency, polarization, and radiation pattern as compared to a standard antenna array.